District of North Vancouver – Supporting Community Gardens & Local Food Systems?

Lillooet Park Community Garden, photo: Heather Johnstone

We went to the District of North Vancouver (DNV) Council Meeting last Monday to present on the merits of supporting more community garden development, and to report on the success of the newly built Lillooet Park Community Garden.  The agenda was stacked with food related presentations – the Edible Garden Project, Delbrook Staff Garden Initiative, the Youth Safe House Secret Garden, comments on Metro Vancouver’s Draft Regional Food System Strategy, and the results of a survey on Neighbourhood Perceptions of Local Food and Gardening.

We are so thank-full that over a dozen people came out to support and speak about community gardens. Having so many warm bodies and different perspectives on why community gardens are important for DNV residents made a real impact! The animated and heartfelt descriptions of the joys of lugging rocks during the hottest days of the year during the construction of the Lillooet Park Community Garden, meeting new neighbours and friends, and getting a chance to learn new skills showed Mayor and Council the diversity of reasons why the community supports more gardens.  At the end of the evening Councillor Lisa Muri said, “I am no longer a skeptic on the value of community gardens and what they mean to residents of the North Vancouver District.” That’s a big step forward, and we were happy to also hear support for community garden initiatives from Mayor Walton, Councillor Hicks, Councillor McKay-Dunn, and Councillor Nixon.

As Mayor and Council discussed a number of items on the agenda Heather and I found ourselves scribbling notes and biting our tongues. Sometimes it’s hard not to interject and add your own thoughts to the discussion! Instead of getting kicked out of Council Chambers for disrupting decorum, we decided to save our thoughts to share in writing today.

What is the distinction between neighbourhood gardening and large scale “food security”?

One of the interesting points that was brought up a few times by Counc. Little is the notion that neighbourhood gardening does not impact food security. We beg to differ, and I think there are a few other members of Council that would agree there is a very real and tangible connection.

  1. If we’re talking about food security on an individual basis then we cannot assume that everyone can afford to have access to fresh healthy produce all the time. In fact there are many people on the North Shore who would benefit to access to a community garden plot to grow nutritious and culturally appropriate food for themselves and their families.  Gardens provide people with access to grow safe, nutritious, culturally appropriate food even if they don’t provide all of the food they will need.
  2. Counc. Hicks mentioned the role that Victory Gardens played in providing families with food in England post WWII. Community gardens will need to play a similar role again in the future as food supply decreases and costs increase due to climate change.  We are several generations removed from our agricultural roots and  need to re-build the capacity and knowledge on food growing within our communities if we hope to have the same success of past Victory Gardens.  Community gardens provide the perfect learning environment and hosts for workshops and training sessions available to everyone in the community to revive those lost skills.  Community gardens are not the end all and be all of food security for the North Shore, but they are a more than simply recreational and therapeutic. They are one vital component of a diverse strategy that helps move us towards  a resilient and sustainable food secure community.

Whose responsibility is food security?

During the discussion of the Metro Vancouver Regional Food Strategy draft, Counc. Muri and Bassam were both supportive of the strategy’s proposal to preserve Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) land. This is great, but there is no ALR land in the DNV. Although I’m happy to see them jump on board the preserving ALR lands, their support for something that has little to do with food security or production in the DNV is not a replacement for “home grown” initiatives on the North Shore.  A regional strategy for food security is incredibly important, but I think that a perspective that focused more on “what can we do to support this…” rather than “Metro Van should…” would do wonders.

Passing the cost of community garden building over to community members would defeat the purpose of accessibility, and it is unrealistic to rely solely on businesses to sponsor community initiatives like this. However there is room for the DNV Council to address what their role is in supporting community garden development without being responsible for paying for them all. The upcoming Official Community Plan (OCP) is a great opportunity to encourage or require all new developments to include community garden space. If the District is not going to support garden development financially, why not include them as a community amenity to be provided by developers. As the ‘Network of Centres’ proposed in the Draft OCP is developed increasing density is only going to mean increased demand for garden space: building them in as these centres develop is going to be much easier than trying to add them later!

Community Gardens are not Cost Effective?

When it comes down to cost, I just don’t see how an elliptical machine offers more value to the community then a community garden – that’s an argument we’re hearing from some Council members!  Although a gymnasium may see over 200 people in a month, there are construction, staffing, maintenance, electricity, etc. costs to consider over the lifetime of that infrastructure.. Gardens on the other hand are a onetime construction cost (the garden society takes care of ongoing maintenance), and provide a public space and learning environment for the entire community. In fact, the District is saving money every year by no longer having to maintain the garden site. I think that if you compare the cost of each over 20 years the garden might not seem so expensive!  Both have value from a recreation perspective, but both appeal to different folks as well – I’m personally not a community member who gets any use out of an elliptical machine!

Overall the response at the Council Meeting was positive, but I think that there is work to be done to articulate the connections between neighbourhood gardening and food security, and the economics of community gardens to Mayor and Council. Moving forward… we know there are lots of people in Lynn Valley who want a community garden. Our question to you is, “If you were a community garden in Lynn Valley, where would you be?”

Here’s the video we created to thank Mayor and Council for their support of the Lillooet Park Community Garden.


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Farmers Markets for District of North Vancouver

Photo: Natalie Maynor

Tonight the District of North Vancouver’s Mayor and Council will debate the merits of a proposal for two farmers markets. The two proposed locations are at Lynn Valley Village Plaza and Parkgate Plaza, and would run for a trail period of one year. The proposal on the table tonight would authorize staff to modify special events permits to allow for events like a farmers market on public lands.

There’s nothing like buying your fresh produce from a local farmer – the person that put in the sweat equity to make that carrot so sweet and crunchy! Farmers Markets provide the opportunity to buy fresh healthy local produce, support our local economy, and of course create the connection between food purchasers and producers.

To support the proposal for Farmers Markets in the District of North Vancouver you can:

  1. Write to Mayor and Council – we’ve even created an email that you can cut and paste if you’re short on time. Email them at: dnvcouncil@dnv.org

Dear Mayor and Council,

I am writing in support of the proposal for the Farmers Market trials in North Vancouver. Farmers Markets provide access to fresh local food, an opportunity to get outside and meet new people, and support our local economy in BC. I would like to see Farmers Markets in North Vancouver, and I hope that you will support this proposal.


  1. Attend the Council Meeting – tonight (Dec 13th) at 7:00pm, 355 West Queens Road, North Vancouver

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The Coromandel Peninsula

The Pinnacles

After a rollercoaster of a bus ride from Auckland to Thames, I managed to settle into the Sunkist hostel near the seashore. The building is the oldest in Thames, and had a lot of charm. It was eco-friendly too with buckets for kitchen scraps to feed to the pigs, recycling bins, electricity and water saving features, and free-range eggs for sale.

Me in an old Kauri tree

Thames is the gateway to the Pinnacles, which is the mountain range that runs along the middle of the Coromandel Peninsula – obviously I was there for the hiking. I met another Canadian girl and I guy from Germany at the hostel, and we all headed up to the Pinnacles together for a day hike.

GAH! That's steep...

There were plenty of swing bridges, ladders, and steep climbs, but the view from the top was quite spectacular.

View from the top of the Pinnacles


While I was wrapping up at Rainbow Valley Farm, I got an email from a couple living in Whitianga that I had contacted about WWOOFing. They needed help in the garden on their organic cattle ranch. Whitianga (Fit-EEE-anga) is on the other side of the peninsula from Thames. The drive around was beautiful, but a little scary at times. Again, the roads were narrow, windy, and right along the seashore.

View of the ranch from the kitchen window - fruit orchard, and pasture. If you look closely, squint your eyes, and shake your head a little you can see some sheep in the shade under the tree in the field. Everything is a bit dry!

I couldn’t have felt more at home at Jaqui & Rod’s place; they were incredible hosts, and I hope that they come visit Vancouver someday. I spent most of my time at their place working in the garden, but I also got a chance to feed the pigs and chooks, and pick plums in the orchard. January here is like July at home in the garden, so the zucchinis were growing like crazy! Jaqui and I made a really delicious courgette chutney that I can’t wait to make again this summer! Yummy!

A garden gnome must have taken this picture when I wasn't looking.

One of the reasons I was so excited to spend some time in Whitianga was because it is quite close to Cathedral Cove and Hot Water Beach – two places I wanted to visit. I worked ‘double time’ in the garden for a day, so I could have the next day off to explore the area and check out the beach. Luckily they had an extra bicycle that I could use for the day to get around.

I took the Ferry from Whitianga across the harbour ... to get to the other side. A little bit of a short cut on the way to Cathedral Cove.

Emily❤ Fern Trees! This wa along the path to Cathedral Cove - so lovely and cool to walk in.

The Beach at Cathedral Cove - a bit busy for my taste, but the turquoise water and white sand were spectacular!

The namesake - I think that the Cathedral Cove we visited in the Catlins on the South Island was more spectacular, but this is still a great example of erosion forces at work! Eventually this tunnel will collapse, and turn into a pillar.

Stingray Bay - wordless.

Chaos at Hot Water Beach. These guys must have been at work for a while to build a pool like that!

How is hot water beach hot? There are two springs, Maori and Orua, under the beach heated by hot volcanic intrusions from 5-9million years ago. Release of carbon dioxide causes the springs to bubble up through fractures in the underlying rock. If you dig a hole deep enough at low tide, you can reach this hot water (60-65C), and have a lovely soak.

River swimming hole off HWY 309

After about 60Km of riding, I had to stop at the river for a swim on the way home! Cathedral Cove and Hot Water Beach were both cool, but I think my favourite swim spot was the river of HWY 309. The water was clear and refreshing, and it was nice to relax in the water without being pushed around in the big surf. People say there are killer eels that lurk in the depths of the swimming hole – I wouldn’t be surprised if there are, but I luckily didn’t have an encounter.

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Rainbow Valley Farm – Cheese, Cheer, & Compost

It’s been a wonderful month here at Rainbow Valley Farm. I’ve learned a lot, and have appreciated seeing an established “permaculture system” at work. We’ve been busy, but I’ll try to catch you up on all of it.

I also thought I would post a few pictures of the farm so you can get a better idea of where I’ve been.

Passive solar design of the main house makes it cool place to escape to in the hot hot heat! I love the turf roof

View of the left side of the garden from the roof of the main house. You can also see the orchard directly behind the garden, and the bush area extending up the other side of the valley.

Right side of the garden - I've spent lots of time weeding, mulching, and planting in here with Fran

Fran collecting sea grass

We spent an afternoon ‘working’ at the beach – collecting sea grass to use as garden mulch. As you can see, the tide was really low and the sun had dried out the sea grass so it was easy to go along and scoop it into our sacks. There were a few muddy patches though…

The Cheese

In the end I made feta using two different methods. The one I mentioned in my last post, which was by fermentation. The second was the more conventional method using starter cultures and rennet. Both turned out tasty despite some minor hiccups along the way! The fermented one had a milder flavour, but better texture, took longer to make, but was less work. I think the cultured one won on flavour, but it was a good chunk of a Sunday spent stirring, measuring, taking temperatures, and draining.

Equipment for the second round of cheese... 5Litres of raw milk ready to go

The final products - cubed fermented version in front, round cultured version at the back

Hot Compost

Fran has been working hard in the garden getting everything in order for the summer growing season, and producing lots of food for the upcoming courses. Every good garden needs good compost, so Tom and I decided to make a Hot Compost pile so Fran would have some extra compost to work with. Hot Compost works the same way a regular compost pile does, but it’s has a finished product in as little as 18 days instead of months.

The right ratio of green (nitrogen) to brown (carbon) is critical for success with Hot Compost - Tom and I collecting brown material in the fern grove

We layered up cow poop, brown material, kitchen scraps, and weeds in a one cubic meter pile. The pile gets so hot from all the bacterial action that most weed seeds are killed and it’s steamy when you turn it over. Every few days we’ve been turning it over and keeping it moist. It’s starting to look pretty good!

Compost now - about 14 days old

Russel and I had the honour of cleaning out the composting toilets. Actually, it wasn’t that bad. Unlike long drops or out houses, compost toilets don’t smell bad and the ‘finished product’ is pretty harmless. The farm uses a vermiculture system that is a lot like home worm farms for composting – each worm eats its own body weight in organic matter a day, and poops it out as a nutrient rich composted material. Obviously what we were digging out was not fresh, it had been sitting long enough for the worms to get their work done – a few months. Most people don’t use this compost directly in their gardens, but it is possible if you’ve let it cure enough to ensure that any pathogenic bacteria has been wiped out. There’s no problem putting it on perennials or in an orchard though.

Joc' shows us how it's done

The finished product. Looks like dirt to me!

The compost was put in the subtropical orchard and covered with saw dust as a mulch to keep the nutrients from getting washed away

The Ducklings

I’ve been looking after the poultry while I’ve been here, and lucky for me it’s been duckling season. The ducklings I told you about last time are doing really well, and have gotten quite big under the protection of Mr Gander.

One of the Muscovie ducks hatched six bright yellow fuzz balls two days ago. They’re so cute!

Mama and her ducklings

Unfortunately they’re also tasty. Stoats, eels, and ferral cats are on the hunt and took out half the pack within 24hrs. Down to three, we moved them into a chicken tractor where we hoped they would be safer.

Their new home in the chicken tractor, complete with pond

And then there were three

The Market

Every Saturday there is a Farmer’s Market in Matakana. The farm has a stall that sells produce, honey, fresh cut flowers, and organic crepes made to order. I’ve been helping out most weekends that I’ve been here, and it’s been sweet as – live music, lots of fresh local organic produce, friendly people, and delicious crepe snacks.

Part of our stall at the Matakana Farmer's Market

Hands down THE BEST oranges I've ever tasted! They're so sweet and juicy... yummy.

The Holiday Season!

Merry Christmas, Happy New Year, and don’t forget summer solstice! We celebrated Solstice at the farm with a magnificent feast so some people could spend Christmas with their families. Each of us made a special dish of delicious food. I made butter chicken from a recipe that Rob swears is the best…. and I started with the chicken.

Fran and Tom in the kitchen preparing for the feast

The table - we used canna lily leaves for plates so we would hav fewer dishes to wash

Appies! Scallops and Thai fish cakes on lemon grass skewer

Tom's mostly maggot free Camembert cheese, and Russel's gorgeus French loaves

Russel playing his Aussie role of "Baar-bie" Master

The main course- butter chicken, the best steak i've ever eaten, and a tasty stuffed squash

A couple of happy campers!

The final straw... Fran's (she's Italian) Tiramisu and Tom's (he's British) Mince Tart, and Fejio liquer

I slept well that night.

Christmas was a bit quieter, but just as lovely. It was my first Christmas away from home (*tear), but was bearable because the Farm and country weren’t swept away by Holiday Fever. It was also my first Christmas on a warm beach (Tofino doesn’t count). The water was so warm! Even saw Santa (or one of his elves) take a quick break for a surf.

Pikiri Beach - Christmas 2009

Me and my cape. I picked potatoes at noon (bad timing), and forgot to put sunscreen on my back - needless to say I got a bit burnt. The Cape did a good job of protecting my burn for the rest of the day.

Is that Santa!?

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Copenhagen Wrapped Up?

Masked climate activists protest outside U.N. climate talks in Bangkok, Thailand on Friday, Oct. 2, 2009, (AP Photo)

The negotiations in Copenhagen have finished, and dignitaries, world leaders, and activists are heading home with copies of the draft Copenhagen Accord in their pockets. It’s not what many had hoped for, and I’m feeling disappointed and deflated as I read over the outcomes.

If you haven’t had the opportunity to scavenge for scraps of “insider news” from the Bella Centre for the last couple of weeks, then you might find this brief summary of what has come out of Copenhagen useful. I wasn’t there, and I have not read the draft Accord, but this is what I know:

Copenhagen Accord: The Basics

  • No legally binding emissions targets were set. From what I understand, countries have been asked to develop and submit their mid-term (2020) emissions targets by February 2010. However, the Accord includes a target of 80% reductions from 1990 levels by 2050.
  • Negotiators settled on limiting temperature rise to 2C. This has major implications for developing nations, and is significantly higher then the 1.5C rise that many environmental groups, developing nations, and climate scientists have been advocating for…. not ambitious.
  • A date for the peak of global emissions was not set.
  • A statement regarding the important role of deforestation in climate change was included in the Copenhagen Accord, but it is vague and does not specify mechanisms for an outcome from Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+).
  • This accord is not a replacement of the Kyoto Protocol – an important factor because it means that countries are still responsible for their commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, as well as what comes from the final version of the Copenhagen Accord.
  • As for “fairness,” $30bn of funding for developing nations from 2010-2012 was promised, increasing to $100bn by 2020. These funds will go to the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund – no specifics on who the money will come from, or how it will be used. From what I understand, developing nations will need to agree to international monitoring and verification of their emissions to be eligible to receive funding.
  • Nations have agreed to reconvene in 2015 to readdress targets like the maximum temperature rise of 2C.
  • A goal to make the Copenhagen Accord a legally binding document by the end of 2010.
  • The first time in history that all major greenhouse gas emitting nations (both developed and developing) came together to slow the threat of climate change.

What’s Next?
Canada will be hosting the next G20 Summit in June, and there are already whispers of organizing to show world leaders (once again) how important climate change is to the people they represent. The Copenhagen Accord should become a legally binding document at the COP16 in Mexico City, December 2010 – perfect timing for a sunny vacation… just kidding!

Meanwhile, developed nations have to meet the February 2010 deadline for submitting their specific mid-term emissions targets. From the leaked documents revealing Canada’s position on this, it looks like we have a lot of work to do in January to show Harper and our Government that their proposal is not acceptable.

Take Action
Calling my MP seemed intimidating at first, but then I remembered that his job is to represent me and that if I don’t tell him what I think then he can make as many assumptions about the views of his constituents as he wants. With that in mind, it felt great to tell him (actually his answering machine) what I thought of Canada’s role at Copenhagen, our government’s weak emissions targets, and lack of funding for alternative energy and green jobs.

If you haven’t already, please call your MP and Prime Minister Steven Harper – tell them what you think! Watch how easy it is here.

“While the reality of climate change is not in doubt, […] our ability to take collective action is in doubt…” President Barack Obama

In the coming weeks and months we will need to come together to send a strong and clear message to our government to take action on climate change. Keep your eyes peeled and an ear to the ground for local groups and actions you can participate in. Talk to your friends, family, and collegues about what future you want to see, and then start ‘doing’. We cannot rely on government to organize all the solutions. We cannot stand alone in the face of climate change – identify your strengths and share them with your community to create the blueprint for our survival.

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Wellington Wellington Wellington

Ooops! I almost forgot to tell write about Wellington. We spent about a week there wandering about, and it is a very cool city. The thing the stood out the most for me was the way they have designed their public spaces. Along downtown’s main streets there are lots of places to sit and admire the street art and people watch. It’s obvious that it is a city full of arts and culture.

Here are a few of my favourite public spots in Wellington:

A city that replaces a pedestrian overpass with a pirate ship earns lots of brownie points in my books!

I found this ingenious chicken nesting box at an installation featuring all recycled/reused materials. Caitlin and Lee Taylor created it, and called it "Chicks in Cyberspace"

I think more buildings should have pokadots

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Rainbow Valley Farm – Flood, Feathers, Filth, and Feta

The Flood

Usually the stream flows through a culvert under the drive way... didn't quite fit this time

My first week on Rainbow Valley Farm coincided with monsoon rains. The first few days the mornings were pleasant, and just as we would sit down for our communal lunch the rains would begin. It was like clock work. It started with a little drizzle and quickly became torrential! Soon after we finished washing up the lunch dishes, the clouds would part and we could get back to work in the humid heat.

A few days later the rain settled in, and it poured for about three days. The last day was amazing! It was so loud that we had to raise our voices, and it just kept getting louder and wetter as the day progressed. The gutter above the door to my room got clogged, so by the middle of the night I had a waterfall shooting off the roof in front of my door! By noon the next day the property was starting to flood. Trish, the owner of the farm, said it was the biggest flood she’d seen on the property in over twenty years. The flooding was caused because the farm is situated in a steep valley. The ground became so saturated that the rain just ran off, and flooded the valley stream. Luckily the main house and wwoofery (housing for interns and wwoofers) were up high enough on the hill to not be affected. Just as quickly as the water had come up it subsided. The wood lot had been shifted a bit, the permanent tent was a little damp and silty, and the lower paddocks looked flattened. Amazingly none of the fences broke, the bridges held up, and nothing was shifted too far.

Tom checking on the fences

The Feathers

“Birds of a feather flock together,” doesn’t quite ring true on this farm. We’ve got chooks (chickens), ducks, geese, and guinea fowl all living a somewhat harmonious existence. One of the first tasks I was given was feeding the poultry and collecting the eggs. I quite enjoy it as a start and end to my day.

Chickens, ducks, and guinea fowl living together

Until recently, all of the poultry was totally free ranging on the farm, and most of them stuck to the orchards. It’s quite cute to walk through the orchard and around the wwoofery and find random and creatively placed nesting boxes that have now been abandoned. Having free range chickens in the orchard for over a decade began to take it’s toll as they had started to scratch down to the shallow rooting systems of the fruit trees, so things changed! The chickens were split into three groups – a chicken tractor, a flock for the hen house, and a small group to remain free ranging in the orchard. Some of the ducks joined the hens headed for the house, but the most of them and the guinea fowl and geese stayed in the orchard. Since the switch up the orchard has changed a lot. There is a new rhubarb patch, and lots of undergrowth growing back, and still benefiting from the bird poop fertilizer.

A favourite nesting box or a wood oven?

As with any barnyard, there is a love story to share. A few years ago Mrs Goose passed away, and Mr Gander was left heartbroken and lonely. Then one day his eye caught a sleek looking black duck named Victoria. It was love at first sight, and he has been at her side ever since. Victoria enjoys Mr Gander’s company alright, but she has been a bit promiscuous. Eight little ducklings were born just a few weeks ago, but Mr Gander seems to think they could only be his. He is very protective of them, and they’re growing very strong as a result. Meanwhile, Ms Goosey was introduced to the flock as a replacement for Mrs Goose. Smitten immediately with Mr Gander, Ms Goosey tends to spend her days following Mr Gander, Victoria, and their ducklings around – I have yet to decide whether it should be classified as stalking or just the nature of a protective aunt to the ducklings.
Mr Gander and Ms Goosey team up to be bullies at feeding time, and I’ve had a really hard time dealing with their behaviour. If they were simply being mean for the sake of it and stealing everyone else’s food then I suppose they could have been moved or isolated for a little bit. However, they’re only acting out of protection for the ducklings. Most of the other birds have realized this and stay a safe distance away from them at all times…. I think Mr Gander gets a little bit bored by their good behaviour and lashes out indiscriminately on occasion. He doesn’t respond when I tell him off.

The love triangle - Mr Gander, Victoria, Ms Goosey, and the ducklings

The Filth

Weeding the rice paddy is a dirty job

The hot and humid summers here make for good rice growing conditions. It is probably the only rice paddy in New Zealand, and produces almost enough to sustain the farm. They’ve been experimenting with annual versus perennial systems of growing rice. Although it is more common to grow rice on a small scale annually because it is a staple and yield has to be consistent for subsistence farmers, friends of the farm in Japan have insisted that their perennial rice has higher yield. The easy part of growing annual rice is that at the beginning of the season the paddy can be drained and thoroughly weeded, and then rice transplanted in, and ducks added to keep the weeds down and fertilize. The hard part about growing it perennially is that this weeding has to happen between the already establish rice plants, and more often… it’s a lot more work.

Hair of the Day Winner: Fran!

Off we went to weed the rice paddy! Honestly, I don’t think I even imagined spending time in a rice paddy, but it was quite enjoyable. Especially once I got the hang of keeping my legs wide enough to keep balance and limit how much I had to bend my back.

Fran ‘accidentally’ threw her handful of mud and weeds at Tom instead of the bank. From that point on there were random missiles of mud flying in every direction. We were filthy by the end of it, but my skin was softer!

Who should get the next mud bomb?

The Feta

Some of you may already know about my fascination with making my own cheese. Just before I left on this trip I bought a little starter kit, but decided to wait until I got back because I didn’t have enough time to finish it, and by that I mean eat it. It was just my luck that Joc, the farm’s people care manager, is an accomplish home cheese maker! Even though I’m only here for a month, it is more then enough time to make feta. YAY! One of the farm hands, James, regularily buys raw milk for his family and he was happy to fill a few bottles up for Tom and I. Tom made a MASSIVE block of camembert that is still curing, and I’ve made a wee little blob of feta. Today I’ll be taking it out of the mold and putting it in a brine solution for a week or so. Hopefully by then we’ll have some lovely tomatoes and cucumbers to make a big greek salad! Some ancient greek ancestor will be proud!

First step in making Feta: skim the cream off the milk, and to make butter and buttermilk


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